Page 160 - British Inquiry into Loss of RMS Titanic Day 19 - 22
P. 160
spacing of the bulkheads, a series of experiments were carried out for a sailing vessel with cargoes of salt and iron, as well as of coal. No table has been prepared giving the spacing of the bulkheads suitable for the two former cargoes, but the curves deduced from the experiments are shown in conjunction with that for the coal cargo, and similar curves can be approximately deduced for cargoes of intermediate densities (Diagram 1). “It is obvious from an examination of the curve for the iron cargo, that to require such a spacing of bulkheads in sea-going cargo vessels as would fulfill the conditions of the Board’s question under all circumstances of loading, would cause the holds to be too short for general trade. We recommend, therefore, that the arrangement of bulkheads in the vessels specified in the several grades, be fixed on the assumption that the cargo spaces in each, contain cargo such as coal, occupying 47 cubic feet to the ton, sufficient with the full complement of bunker coals on board to immerse the vessel to the bulkhead loadline, and so distributed as a whole that she may float on an even keel. Such cargo we have assumed to admit water to 40 cubic feet in every 100 cubic feet of the space it occupies. “In order that the advantage resulting from efficient subdivision of vessels by means of bulkheads may not be nullified by insufficient regard being given to dangers connected with openings in vessels’ sides, we recommend the adoption of the following precautions in regard thereto: - “(a.) That all coaling and cargo ports in a vessel’s side below the bulkhead deck be efficiently closed and made secure before the vessel puts to sea, and be not opened except when she is coaling or taking in or discharging cargo. “(b) That there be no sidelights or ports the sills of which are nearer the bulkhead loadline than 12 inches. “(c) That all sidelights fitted in coal bunkers and bunker holds be fixed. That the glass in such sidelights have a thickness of not less than one-half of their clear diameter, be enclosed in a sufficiently strong frame, and be recessed not less than 1 inch within the outer surface of the shell plating. That sidelights the sills of which are at a distance from the bulkhead loadline less than one-fourth of the bulkhead freeboard be not opened at sea except when, through the consumption of coal or otherwise, the vessel has lightened so much as to make the freeboard to the sills of the sidelights greater than one-fourth of the bulkhead freeboard, and in that case the provisions of sub-section (d) may be held to apply. That ventilators in the vessel’s side capable of closing automatically in case of submersion as well as by hand may be fitted, provided the sill of the opening on the inside be not within 2 feet of the loadline, but that any such automatic arrangement should be examined at least once a week, and if not in order it should be closed. “(d) That all other sidelights and ports below the bulkhead deck be of sufficient strength. They may be fixed or capable of being opened, but in the latter case the sidelights as well as the ports, if any, should not be adapted to be opened by passengers, they should be closed before the vessel puts to sea, but may be opened during the voyage by the master’s special orders if the sill be not less than one- fourth of the bulkhead freeboard above the loadline. The time of and reason for opening, and also the time of closing such sidelights and ports, should be noted in the official logbook. All sidelights, except those immediately under the bulkhead deck, and bullseye sidelights should be fitted with hinged metal covers. “(e) That sidelights immediately under the bulkhead deck may be capable of being opened by passengers provided they be arranged to close automatically in case of submersion as well as by hand. “(f) That notwithstanding the foregoing provisions to the contrary sidelights and ports
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